Zefrank’s True Facts: The Astounding Sea Star

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Huge thank you to:
Dr. Chris Mah
Dr. Tomasz Baumiller
Dr. Timothy O’ Hara
Dr. Charles Messing
Dr. Kate M. Naughton
Dr. Angela Stevenson
Melissa Douglas
Dr. Igor Adameyko

Dr. Symon Dworjanyn
Dr. Lara Tomholt
Dr. Simon Coppard
Sina Heydari
Anders Garm
Melanie Lloyd
Video, courtesy of Monterey Bay Aquarium
Foundation © 2022
The New Zealand Marine Studies Centre,
University of Otago (New Zealand),
and Marco Zilioli
NOAA
Australian Institute of Marine Science
Hakai Institute
WA State Dept. of Ecology

Ocean Networks Canada / CSSF-ROPOS
Vancouver Aquarium
Ru Selvadurai
Tidal Gardens
beachstuff.uk
Garry Fletcher
racerocks.com
Lester Pearson College
Zeb Hallock

Dr. Elise Hennebert

Mike Lukaczyn
WeDive TV

Abhishek Gupta
Mull Aquarium

Annette G.E. Smith
Robert Beck

References:

Baumiller, Tomasz K. (2008). Crinoid Ecological Morphology. , 36(1), 221–249. 
doi:10.1146/annurev.earth.36.031207.124116 

Baumiller, Tomasz K. and Messing, Charles G., 2007. Stalked Crinoid Locomotion, and its
Ecological and Evolutionary Implications. Palaeontologia Electronica Vol. 10, Issue 1; 2A:10p,
12MB

Baumiller, Tomasz K.; Mooi, Rich; Messing, Charles G. (2008). Urchins in the meadow:
paleobiological and evolutionary implications of cidaroid predation on crinoids.
Paleobiology, 34(1), 22–34. doi:10.1666/07031.1 

Blowes, L.M. et al. (2017), Body wall structure in the starfish Asterias rubens.
J. Anat., 231: 325-341. doi.org

Byrne, M. Viviparity and intragonadal cannibalism in the diminutive sea stars Patiriella vivipara 
and P. parvivipara. Marine Biology 125, 551–567 (1996).
doi.org

Clark, R.N. & Jewett, S.C. 2015: A new sea star of the genus Leptasterias
from the Aleutian Islands.
Zootaxa 3941(4): 579–584. DOI: 10.11646/zootaxa.3941.4.6

Simon E. Coppard; Andreas Kroh; Andrew B. Smith (2012). The evolution of pedicellariae in
echinoids: an arms race against pests and parasites. , 93(2), 125–148. 
doi:10.1111/j.1463-6395.2010.00487.x 

Garm Anders and Nilsson Dan-Eric 2014 Visual navigation in starfish: first evidence for the
use of vision and eyes in starfish Proc. R. Soc. B.281: 20133011. 20133011,
doi.org

Garm Anders, Sensory Biology of Starfish—With Emphasis on Recent Discoveries
in their Visual Ecology, Integrative and Comparative Biology, Volume 57, Issue 5,
November 2017, Pages 1082–1092, doi.org

Hamel JF, Mercier A. Prespawning Behavior, Spawning, and
Development of the Brooding Starfish Leptasterias polaris. Biol Bull.
1995 Feb;188(1):32-45. doi: 10.2307/1542065. PMID: 29281304.

Hamel, Jean-François et al. “Prespawning Behavior, Spawning, and Development
of the Brooding Starfish Leptasterias Polaris.” Biological Bulletin, vol. 188, no. 1,
Marine Biological Laboratory, 1995, pp. 32–45, doi.org.

Hennebert, Elise. (2010). Adhesion Mechanisms Developed by Sea Stars: A Review of the
Ultrastructure and Composition of Tube Feet and Their Secretion.
10.1007/978-3-7091-0286-2_7.

Hernroth B, Farahani F, Brunborg G, Dupont S, Dejmek A, Nilsson Sko ̈ld H. 2010. Possibility
of mixed progenitor cells in sea star arm regeneration. J. Exp. Zool. (Mol. Dev. Evol.)
314B:457–468.

Heydari, Sina et al.(2020).
Sea star inspired crawling and bouncing. Journal of The Royal Society Interface.
17. 20190700. 10.1098/rsif.2019.0700.

KHAN, M. S.R. et al. (2019). 
Arrangement and size variation of intra-gonadal offspring in a viviparous asterinid sea star.
Zoosymposia, 15(1), 71–82. doi:10.11646/zoosymposia.15.1.8 

Meyer, D. et al. (2021). Crinoid Feeding Strategies: New I
nsights From Subsea Video And Time-Lapse (Elements of Paleontology). Cambridge:
Cambridge University Press. doi:10.1017/9781108893534

Okanishi M, et al. (2017)
Non-destructive morphological observations of the fleshy brittle star,
Asteronyx loveni using micro-computed tomography.
ZooKeys 663: 1–19. doi.org

Sheppard-Brennand, H. et al. (2017).
A Waterborne Pursuit-Deterrent Signal Deployed by a Sea Urchin.
The American Naturalist, 189, 700 - 708.

Sigl, R. et al. The role of vision for navigation in the crown-of-thorns seastar,
Acanthaster planci. Sci. Rep. 6, 30834; doi: 10.1038/srep30834 (2016).

Solís-Marín FA, et al. (2019) doi.org

Tomholt, L. et al. (2020). The structural origins of brittle star arm kinematics:
An integrated tomographic, additive manufacturing, and parametric modeling-based
approach. Journal of structural biology, 107481.

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